SS2 June 2021


Maria VLACHADI (1) 

University of Nicosia-Cyprus

Georgia KOUFIOTI (2)

Mediterranean Shipping Company Greece

Athanasios KOUNIOS (3)

Mediterranean Shipping Company Greece


Abstract: As far as the social transformation and new construction are concerned, from 2009 to 2015, the primary issue is the actions and preferences of immigrants themselves concerning the pressures of unemployment and the financial crisis of foreign households, as well as the emerging trends in repatriation and return or relocation within the country. The ongoing escalation of the refugee crisis is inextricably linked to and compounded by the phenomenon of excess economic migration, rendering them indistinguishable in terms of categorization and management in most circumstances. The EU refugee crisis has been transformed into a series of inextricably linked crises. In particular, those related to the security of its external borders, its task serving as the main pillar of its life the unity, as frictions within Europe have developed to break up and exacerbate nationalism, humanitarianism, both in the host countries (mainly Greece) and in the interim, where the handling of refugees and those who have been temporarily in their territories is intended to prevent their entry. Therefore, it is clear that the management effectiveness of each crisis is and should be the core of policies to optimize procedures.
Keywords: Leadership; crisis policies; social transformation; migration flows; managerial and administrative structures
Contact details of the authors: E-mail:
Institutional affiliation of the authors: (1) University of Nicosia-Cyprus, University of Thessaly 

(2) Mediterranean Shipping Company Greece

(3) Mediterranean Shipping Company Greece

Institutions address: 46 Makedonitissas Avenue, CY-2417, P.O. Box 24005, CY-1700, NICOSIA, Cyprus,, +357 22 841500 

Papasiopoulou 2-4, Lamia, P.O.Box 35100, +22310 66900



1. Introduction

In recent decades, there have been a variety of incidents and circumstances around the world that have been categorized as crises that have had an impact on the economic, societal, and political lives of individuals or groups. Coping with and managing similar circumstances has become increasingly important in recent years, as the word crisis is frequently being used to identify incidents pertaining to the economy, security, democracy, and the structural and societal context in general. When an occasion occurs, it forces the system’s readiness and reliability to the examination. It entails and instigates circumstances accompanied by confusion, provides a sense that represents a threat to society’s general well-being, stability, and infrastructure, and seems to have a negative effect on any entity attempting to manage the crisis[1]. With the recent globalization circumstances, where transition is occurring at a rapid rate, the concept of crisis defines a scenario that cannot be expected and was triggered by an occurrence marked by confusion and lack of knowledge. Consequently, in order to respond to the crisis in a timely and preventive way, it is important to recognize the origins and its causes in order to improve the current environment. Communication between policymakers and appropriate public bodies has predominantly been top-down instead of two-way [2].

Taking into account the financial aspects of modern immigration to Greece is a major issue of political interest which may arise several policies and frameworks. The economic behavior and implications of the presence of hundreds of thousands of immigrants on financial indicators is one of the core areas to be taken into consideration when assembling the national immigration policies.

The toughest challenge for policymakers is to redesign and innovate migration adjustment and management systems for migrants and refugees, managers, and society as a whole, so that they can become self-sufficient through this management. While emergencies and humanitarian challenges, with their devastating consequences, become more common and widespread, the acquisition and application of awareness is regarded as the most appropriate means to avert the humanitarian crisis of migration or to mitigate its impact as the proper management mechanism progresses [3].

While the vulnerability of certain communities and entities to humanitarian crises is unavoidable, individuals may contribute significantly in minimizing the burden by strengthening the system’s resilience and ability to restore community cohesion, which can be accomplished via effective management strategy [4],[5][6]. The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors that can facilitate the management of migrants and refugees at both national and supranational levels, as well as to analyze management policies and new policy practices that may lead to best treatment. Based on the above purpose, the question that the work is called to answer arises and concerns the ways of effective management policy to combat the effects of humanitarian crises such as the phenomenon of migration.

2.The concept of humanitarian crisis

Leaders and teams are part of a diverse organization dedicated to organizing and achieving technical, personal, and structural missions. A strong organizational interaction between a leader and subordinate requires a series of tasks that are mutually required for acting out a structural assignment. Management and leadership are distinguished by the technical skills of direction, design, instruction, development, and motivation [7]. Leadership is a well-thought-out dimension of management, but management is not the only concept that defines the leadership principle. A leader’s responsibility is to empower different components with a high degree of coordination, organization, and mission in order to respond to crises and humanitarian crises exacerbated by social instability.

As a predominant source of knowledge, the media bears a major obligation to disseminate scientific information to the general public and policymakers[8]. Individuals are more likely to be affected by setup due to a lack of public awareness and a dependence on the media for facts and decision-making[9].

3.The importance of crisis management in migration crisis

Crisis management is enlisting a growing number of professionals in the areas of organisation, government, policy, industry, and, in general, all of the stakeholders concerned. Since the crisis is in an unstable condition, specialists are proposing an increasing number of management frameworks for more successful crisis management. The overall goal, as well as the management policies, would be to ensure every attempt to provide a life that is both better and healthier, as stable and balanced as possible[10]. The use of the word “bio” in the ontological, moral and existential approach is used to describe the “being” of the individual, in general his own life. “Survival” is another term that is simply separate from life with a slight tone change; the connection to this point is solely in the dimension of damage, but also partly in society’s view of danger as a whole aspect of asylum and financial security. By “immigration policy,” bibliographically is implied the scope of political action that governs migrants’ entry, residency, living, and working conditions, as well as the priorities, needs, and aims of the state or all states. The individual considers himself exposed to serious dangers that may natural or man-made disaster[11].

Numerous social scientists, however, disagree, maintaining that insecurity is largely intangible[12] [13][14] . As previously stated, asylum is given to a person requiring foreign protection in another country because he is systematically persecuted in his native country. The EU has a responsibility to provide asylum. However, at this point, the provisions of foreign and subsidiary protection must be clarified. Refugee status (asylum) and subsidiary protection are examples of international protection. An immigrant must first be acknowledged as a refugee before being granted asylum. The convergence of European Union member states’ immigration policies is a prime concern.

It is claimed that the individual established an ideological structure in which he enables himself to recognize and interact with the risk and its implications. According to this viewpoint, risk does not appear “out there,” but seems to be a component of the individual’s educational, economic, and social capital, as well as the cultural and political level that encompasses it. The reliance on crisis evaluations at each step of the procedure, from the initial structuring of a risk issue to the evaluation of endpoints or outcomes that should be included in the evaluation, identification and reviewing reports, choosing dose-response partnerships, and evaluating accountability and efficacy, becomes the context in which subjectivity pervades risk assessments. Even the relatively straightforward process of selecting a risk indicator for a well-defined endpoint, such as human fatalities as appeared in Aegean Sea, can easily become unexpectedly complicated and important. The fundamental challenge that emerges at both the practical and theoretical levels is how to choose a risk evaluation, with the recognition that the decision is likely to promote a significant change in the way risk is viewed and measured. One of the more fundamental parameters is the element “Fear as a differential of risk”. The greater the risk dynamics in this aspect, the greater the perceived risk, and the more people who are affected, want a stringent control to reduce risk[15].

Immigration policy, according to Schnapper, is a set of two initiatives and social policies that are governed on the basis of two axes that govern the entry, stay, and work of arriving non-citizens of a country, oppose illegal immigration, and promote return or temporary stay, but also deal with already settled migrants. The second axis is the social policy axis, which is subdivided into individual policies for integration and incorporation of immigrant communities. That is, regulations on education, employment, health, welfare, and social security, among others[16].

Policymaking, in its wider definition, corresponds to the conduct, procedures, traditions, and structures (both formal and informal) that are used to make and execute collective decisions. Risk management is characterized as “the collection of variables, rules, contracts, processes, and structures that govern how sensitive risk information is gathered, evaluated, and transmitted, as well as how management decisions are being made”. It is typically concerned with the issue of how communities profit from transition, the so-called “upside risk” or incentive, while attempting to minimize the negative risk or failure. Systemic risk, on the other hand, is typically regarded as a lower risk. The acknowledgement of systemic risk, by implication, results in the failure or severe deterioration of the system as a whole. Assessment, coordination, and administration – in other words, policy – and structural risk are compounded by the chance of making successive integrated socioeconomic structures, crossing political borders (including municipal and Member State or peripheral boundaries), and the introduction of inappropriate charges throughout nations. Risk assessment is also perplexed by almost unpleasant challenges in finding participants and passing judgement[17].

4. Analysis of management policies and presentation of new managerial policies

Countries and international organizations around the world that are engaged in humanitarian crises, especially extreme migrant flows, have no choice but to educate, empower, and motivate their respective societies. They recognize that if they do not have the ability to support themselves and attempt to use their abilities and collaborations, security would continue to elude them, particularly provided that the classic political present and the current of realism with its derivatives depend on the idea of security and safety. The vast difference in the disparity, in reality, between the financially powerful and the affluent, the young and the elderly, the healthy and the non-healthy population, makes it difficult to take a systematic or standard approach to disaster and in accordance to migration -education within a static framework. To address the varied experiences and needs of people from region to region, a multilevel combination of formal and non-formal education may be needed. The only constant is the value and necessity of cultivating a culture of preparedness and protection. Furthermore, education of vulnerable populations facilitates the achievement of actions for the whole population[18].

In this sense, the management of the refugee crisis is commonly carried out by contact strategy, which broadens the policy’s potential and contributes greatly to its formulation[19]. The refugee crisis is a conventional humanitarian crisis, and it encompasses all of the aspects of instability and risk to human existence that enforced population relocation entails. According to Comfort (1988), four precautions should be taken when implementing crisis management. The first is the prevention and reduction of repercussions, the second is preparing and organizing, the third is prompt response and decision-making, and afterwards, the situation is regained control of[20].

As a consequence, citizens found it impossible to live in their home nations, leading to the rise of the refugee crisis, which impacted surrounding countries as well as the majority of Europe[21]. The Mediterranean migrant crisis has focused attention on immediate concerns. At the same point, it revealed a great deal about the systemic limits of EU immigration policy and the resources available to it. This is an occasion for the EU to resolve any need for a correct coordination in its immigration policies. Over the last four years, the EU has rendered unparalleled strides to resolve the migrant problem, culminating in a five-year low in illegal arrivals. The theory of mass return to origin countries has not been validated at the EU level.

It has been suggested that in times of crisis, effective leaders struggle by using simple negotiation strategies, whereas weak leaders retreat. Successful managers should not settle for the basics; they innovate, discover, and improve strategies and approaches even though the situation is dire[22]. The management of developed state policy, conventional political leadership, administrative roles, crisis management, and institutional administration seem to be the most obvious areas in which representatives of the federal government execute various purposes[23]. The political executive has a serious advantage over the assembly. This concerns its ability to take decisive and immediate action, parameters that are particularly important for the management of a crisis.

As of January 2015, there has been a rise in the irregular / undocumented arrival of refugees and migrants, especially through the sea frontier, i.e. the islands of Aegean and across the land border along the Evros area, with the vast majority of people arriving originating from Syria (60 percent) and Afghanistan (25 percent)[24]. This increase was incremental, with arrivals significantly increasing per month, reaching its peak in October 2015 with 211,596 entrants in Greece. Inflow steadily decreased until March 2016, when the EU-Turkey Joint Declaration was adopted (implementation commenced on March 21, 2016), and then intermittent maritime border crossings were significantly reduced, decreasing from 25004 individuals in March 2016 to 3078 individuals in April[25].

The severe acceleration of the crisis imposed a tremendous amount of pressure on the Greek state, and it was obvious from the outset that there was no infrastructure in facilities, human resources, or adequate organization to address even the most needs of the population entering Greece, such as accommodation, health care, and nutrition. Synchronously with this situation, an economic crisis emerged, which, when combined with special political circumstances in the summer of 2015, plummeted the Greek economy into a major recession[26], allowing response to the refugee crisis much more challenging.

Economic, political, demographic patterns, environmental crises, and other factors may all contribute to ideal conditions for human migration or relocation[27]. In the example of Syria, a mixture of circumstances (hostilities, existing political instability, etc.) has resulted in a refugee surge, which has had a huge effect on numerous governmental and non-governmental systems in Greece – not just those that were already under higher concentration[28].

As far as the legal framework, recently, pursuant to Law 4662/2020, it has been decided to set up a National Crisis and Hazard Management Mechanism (Nat-CHAMM) which covers the entire disaster management cycle and comprises all the operational and administrative structures and functions of civil protection, indicating the urgency and necessity of emergency crisis management policies.

Researching and analyzing available services may be a helpful instructional method for identifying the programs deliver consistent outcomes, how and why, and how to use the appropriate resources (financial, human, and in kind) as easily and efficiently as possible for the greatest beneficial impacts[29].

To clarify, a humanitarian situation arises when a pre-existing situation, typically severe, with characteristics of poverty, deprivation, lack of security, and lack of access to health resources is exacerbated or triggered by an armed conflict or a national disaster[30]. The correct way to deal with and handle a crisis is to identify the initial warning signals so that the imminent crisis can be prevented, as well as to incorporate prevention steps at the management control level[31].

To overcome the refugee crisis in Greece, various strategies, policies, and actions were implemented (consider representative of the ESTIA initiative[32] financing from the European Commission and the EU). Many mechanisms and responsibilities were performed by many organizations in Greece as a result of the refugee crisis. In Athens only, 12 facilities were reported as camps in August 2016[33].

This excludes accommodation systems such as hospitals, hostels, and unaccompanied minors’ hostels, as well as support structures such as day care centers, doctor’s offices, corporate central structures, and so forth. The operation of camps was the most well-known approach in terms of lodging systems. In principle, it was offered mass accommodation, simple surveillance, access to humanitarian agencies, and control capability by state officials, all in a very short period of time. Finally, the community’s strategic interest appears as critical to the effective provision of basic services. Around the same time, community participation in the development of such services is critical because it allows the management to best address the needs of the immigrants while taking into account community desires.

5. Conclusion

Migration policy is a vital and central factor, inextricably connected to the country’s overall development strategies, influencing civilization, the economy and maintaining social cohesion. The organizational viewpoint aims to resolve the crisis with the aid of the management team itself and the leaders, while the political-symbolic approach inVol.ves a program that explains how the crisis situation will be handled by stakeholders and the entire team. According to the Aristotelian perspective, education should be seen as a “jewel in wealth and refuge in difficulty,” referring to the challenges centuries before the importance of education and specialization in dealing with natural and man-made crises. Assuming that the social and educational system as a whole adheres to the Aristotelian viewpoint, it would be critical to teach people about disasters, as this would be a vital hope and a strong “tool” in coping with emergencies and disasters inside a security context. The irony is that, despite the fact that the phenomenon is crucial to humanity’s existence as a whole, most educational initiatives do not treat it in terms of its significance, lacking the normal synthesis of expertise, research areas, and educational subjects[34]. Multidisciplinary versus specialized expertise can be a critical criterion in particular fields and roles, but in terms of crisis and disaster management, where the majority of the outcomes in mortality, morbidity, economical, and logistical consequences are at risk, it can broaden education, according to ancient Greek understanding.





  1. Assailly, Jean Pascal, The Psychology of Risk. The Psychology of Risk, Vol.. 19, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012
  2. Comfort, Louise K., Managing Disaster : Strategies and Policy Perspectives. Duke Press Policy Studies, 1988
  3. Gerstlé, Jacques; Piar Christophe, La Communication Politique, Armand Colin, 2020
  4. Slovic, Paul; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lichtenstein, Sarah, Rating The Risks, Plenum Press, 1981


  1. Aldrich, Nancy; Benson, William F., Disaster Preparedness and the Chronic Disease Needs of Vulnerable Older Adults, in ”Preventing Chronic Disease ” Vol.. 5, No. 1, 2008
  2. Auerbach, Yehudith; Yaeli, Bloch-Elkon, Media Framing and Foreign Policy: The Elite Press Vis-à-Vis US Policy in Bosnia, 1992-95, in ”Journal of Peace Research” Sage Publications London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi, January 1, 2005
  3. Banulescu-Bogdan Natalia; Fratzke, Susan, Europe’s Migration Crisis in Context: Why Now and What Next?, in ”Migrationpolicy.Org.”, September 2015
  4. Blanc-Chaleard, Marie-Claude; Green, Nancy L., Repenser Les Migrations, in ”Le Mouvement Social, No. 209, 2004
  5. Charalambos, Kasimis; Papadopoulos, Apostolos G., The Multifunctional Role of Migrants in the Greek Countryside: Implications for the Rural Economy and Society, in ”Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies”, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2005
  6. Cummings, Garnet; Francesco Della Corte; Cummings Greta, Disaster Medicine Education for Physicians: A Systematic Review, in ”International Journal of Disaster Medicine” Taylor & Francis, January 13, 2006
  7. Elias, Jennifer; Nelkin, Dorothy, Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology, in  ”Journal of Public Health Policy” Vol.. 17, No. 4, 1996
  8. Fernández Santillán, José. Global Politics, in ”Mexican Law Review”,Vol.. 5, 2013
  9. Finucane, Melissa, L.; Alhakami, Ali; Slovic, Paul, Johnson, Stephen, M., The Affect Heuristic in Judgments of Risks and Benefits, in ”Journal of Behavioral Decision Making”, Vol.. 13,No. 1, 2000
  10. Funtowicz, Silvio O.; Ravetz, Jerome R, Three Types of Risk Assessment and the Emergence of Post–Normal ScienceSocial Theories of Risk, 1992
  11. Gregory, Robin; Flynn, James; Slavic, Paul, Technological Stigma, in ”The Perception of Risk”, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, 2016
  12. Hajjaji, Shams Al Din Al, NATO, the EU, and the Arab Refugee Crisis, in ”Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs” Vol.. 6, No. 1, 2018
  13. Henkel, Kristin E.; Dovidio, John F; Gaertner, Samuel L, Institutional Discrimination, Individual Racism, and Hurricane Katrina, in ”Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy”, Vol.. 6, No. 1 2006
  14. Kotsiou, Ourania S.; Panagiotis Kotsios, David S. Srivastava; Vaios Kotsios; Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis; Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos, Impact of the Refugee Crisis on the Greek Healthcare System: A Long Road to Ithaca, in ”International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health”, 2018
  15. Livingston, Armytage, Evaluating Aid: An Adolescent Domain of Practice, in ”Evaluation”, Vol.. 17, No. 3, 2011
  16. Morris, Kerry-Ann N; Edwards Michelle T, Disaster Risk Reduction and Vulnerable Populations in Jamaica: Protecting Children within the Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework, in ”Child. Youth Environ Vol. 18, No. 1, 2008
  17. Nelkin, Dorothy, Risk and the Press, in ”Industrial Crisis Quarterly”, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1987
  18. Rohrmann, Bernd, Risk Perception, Risk Attitude, Risk Communication, Risk Management : A Conceptual Appraisal Keywords, in”Reseacrh Report. University of Melbourne”, No. February 2008
  19. Schnapper – Détail, Dominique,  L’Europe Des Immigrés : Essai Sur Les Politiques d’immigration
  20. Triandafyllidou, Anna, Migration in Greece Recent Developments in 2014, in ”OECD Network of Interational Migration Experts, No. October 2014
  21. Tuladhar, Gangalal; Yatabe, Ryuichi, Bhandary; Netra Prakash; Ranjan Kumar Dahal, Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction Knowledge of School Teachers in Nepal, in ”International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management Vol. 3, No. 1, 2015
  22. Wynne, Brian, Risk and Social Learning: Reification to Engagement, in ”Social Theories of Risk”, 1992



  1. Eu-Turkey Statement Two Years On The Eu-Turkey Statement in Action, 2018

28.  Significant Push/Pull Factors for Determining of Asylum-Related Migration

29.  UNHCR – Policy on Independent Oversig

  1. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Systemic Risks, the Sendai Framework and the 2030 Agenda, Geneva, Switzerland, , 2019














[1] Jacques Gerstlé, Christophe Piar, La Communication Politique, Armand Colin, 2020, (09.03.2021)

[2] Dorothy Nelkin, Risk and the Press, in ”Industrial Crisis Quarterly 1”, No. 2 , 17 June, 1987, pp. 3–9,, (09.03.2021)

[3]Wignyo Adiyoso, Hidehiko Kanegae,  Disaster Mitigation of Cultural Heritage and  Historic Cities, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1–8,  (09.03.2021)

[4]Nancy Aldrich, William F. Benson,  Disaster Preparedness and the Chronic Disease Needs of Vulnerable Older Adults, in ”Preventing Chronic Disease”, No. 1, 2008,,  (09.03.2021)

[5]Kerry-Ann N. Morris, Michelle T. Edwards, Disaster Risk Reduction and Vulnerable Populations in Jamaica: Protecting Children within the Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework, in ”Child. Youth Environ, No. 1, 2008, pp. 389–407,, (09.03.2021)

[6] Gangalal Tuladhar et al., Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction Knowledge of School Teachers in Nepal, in ”International Journal of  Health System and Disaster Management, No. 1, 2015, p. 20,, (09.03.2021)

[7]Kristin E. Henkel, John F. Dovidio, Samuel L. Gaertner, Institutional Discrimination, Individual Racism, and Hurricane Katrina, in ”Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 6, No. 1,  2006, pp. 99–124,,  (09.03.2021)

[8]Jennifer Elias, Dorothy Nelkin, Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology, in ”Journal of Public Health Policy 17”, No. 4, 1996, p.501,, (09.03.2021)

[9]Yehudith Auerbach, Yaeli Bloch-Elkon, Media Framing and Foreign Policy: The Elite Press Vis-à-Vis US Policy in Bosnia, 1992-95, in ”Journal of Peace Research, Sage Publications London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi, January 1, 2005,, (11.01.2021)

[10] Jean Pascal Assailly, The Psychology of Risk, No 19, Nova Science Publishers Inc., 2012,, (11.01.2021)

[11] Robin Gregory, James Flynn, Paul Slovic, Technological Stigma, in ”The Perception of Risk, No 83, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, 2016, pp. 341–46,, (11.03.2021)

[12]Silvio O. Funtowicz, Jerome R. Ravetz, Three Types of Risk Assessment and the Emergence of Post–Normal Science, in ”Social Theories of Risk, 1992

[13] Brian Wynne, Risk and Social Learning: Reification to Engagement, in ”Social Theories of Risk, 1992, p. 412, (11.03.2021)

[14] Melissa L. Finucane et al., The Affect Heuristic in Judgments of Risks and Benefits, in ”Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 13”, No. 2000, pp. 1–17,<1::AID-BDM333>3.0.CO;2-S,  (11.01.2021)

[15] Paul Slovic, Baruch Fischhoff, Sarah Lichtenstein, Rating the Risks, Plenum Press, 1981, pp. 193–217,, (11.03.2021)

[16]Dominique Schnapper – Détail, L’Europe Des Immigrés : Essai Sur Les Politiques d’immigration,,  (24.03.2021)

[17]United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction Chapter 2,  Systemic Risks, the Sendai Framework and the 2030 Agenda, ”UNDRR, Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)”, 2019, pp. 35–73,, (24.03.2021)

[18] Bernd Rohrmann, Risk PerceptionRisk Attitude, Risk Communication, Risk Management : A Conceptual Appraisal Keywords, in ”Research Report. University of Melbourne, February 2008

[19]José Fernández Santillán, Global Politics, ”Mexican Law Review, No. 5, 2013,, (24.03.2021)

[20]Louise K. Comfort, Managing Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives, Duke Press Policy Studies, 1988,–OOtpT7ZnsnnJGmziK1zaT8KOD6t6yLAng, (24.03.2021)

[21]Shams Al Din Al Hajjaji, NATO, the EU, and the Arab Refugee Crisis, in ”Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs 6”, No. 1, June, 2018, p.7,,  ( 24.03.2021)

[22]Natalia Banulescu-Bogdan, Susan Fratzke, Europe’s Migration Crisis in Context: Why Now and What Next?, in   ”Migrationpolicy.Org,” September 24, 2015,’s-migration-crisis-context-why-now-and-what-next?fbclid=IwAR1zPw0q2ppWYkzpNcKuY3FcA6YUIni-OsVPFCpvas3iP1sYGQSNOwQyTFQ,  (24.03.2021)

[23]Charalambos Kasimis, Apostolos G. Papadopoulos, The Multifunctional Role of Migrants in the Greek Countryside: Implications for the Rural Economy and Society, in ”Journal of  Ethnic and Migration Studies, No. 1, 2005, pp. 99–127,, (24.03.2021)

[24]Anna Triandafyllidou, Migration in Greece Recent Developments in 2014, in ”OECD Network of Interational Migration Experts, October 2014, pp. 1–31

[25]EuTurkey Statement Two Years On The EuTurkey Statement In Action, 2018,, (24.03.2021)

[26] Anna Triandafyllidou, Migration in Greece Recent Developments in 2014,  in ”OECD Network of Interational Migration Experts”, October, 2014, pp. 1–31

[27]Publications Office of the EU, Significant Push/Pull Factors for Determining of Asylum-Related Migration, (24.03.2021)

[28]Ourania S. Kotsiou et al., Impact of the Refugee Crisis on the Greek Healthcare System: A Long Road to Ithaca, in ”International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018, (24.03.2021)

[29]Livingston Armytage, Evaluating Aid: An Adolescent Domain of Practice, in ”Evaluation” 17, No. 3, 2011, pp.261–276,, (25.03.2021)

[30]UNHCR – Policy on Independent Oversight,,  (25.03.2021)

[31]Marie-Claude Blanc-Chaleard, Nancy L. Green, Repenser Les Migrations, in ”Le Mouvement Social, No. 209, 2004, p.133,, (25.03.2021)

[32] UNHCR, ESTIA – UNHCR, 2019,

OsVPFCpvas3iP1sYGQSNOwQyTFQ, (25.03.2021)

[33] UNHCR, Policy on Independent Oversig.

[34] Garnet Cummings, Francesco Della Corte, Greta Cummings, Disaster Medicine Education for Physicians: A Systematic Review, in ”International Journal of Disaster Medicine, Taylor & Francis, January 13, 2006,, (25.03.2021)